That said, over the years, this has developed, and homemade crafts and gift ideas, alongside festive activities, have become the norm. To find out more about German Christmas markets , and what makes them so popular, discover more here.
The History of the German Christmas Market During the late Middle Ages, when Germany was still part of the Holy Roman Empire, regular seasonal markets were all the rage. This originated from Emperor Albrecht I granting shopkeepers rights to sell the goods in a day-long market. This way, the townspeople could stock up on their necessities for the cold winter months. From these original winter markets came the Christmas markets we know today. Now, in comparison to the fleeting markets of old, Christmas stalls line the streets for weeks during the build-up to Christmas.
In the UK, Christmas markets have been around for 35 years, and are a yearly source of income for many small businesses. The idea that we could go back to the bad, dark days of the Troubles, with the civil conflict, and the violence, and terrorism there because of Brexit is just astonishing and irresponsible. Again, Boris Johnson said recently in a speech, "This is all blown out of proportion.
It's folly. We shouldn't care about this stuff. They never even thought about it, and this is yet another problem that's come to bite them in the backsides. What do you do about Northern Ireland? The polls now show that the number of people in Northern Ireland who are now starting to support independence and a united Ireland is skyrocketing. It's starting to go up.
In Scotland, which also voted to stay in the EU, but lost out to the majority of the U. It would be another great irony if these great nationalists who said, "We're going to pull Great Britain out of the EU because we want to be sovereign, we want to be independent," if they actually indirectly end up breaking up the U. How tragically ironic that would be. I guess the question is, how real is that as an option for Scotland? They lost, but I think the issue is long-term. No one knows what's going to happen, Chris. No one knows what's going to happen next March, when the Brexit day comes along.
No one knows what's going to happen after the transition period, which finishes, I think, December No one knows. Every week that goes by, there's a new story about some kind of mad constitutional, political, economic, or cultural implication. Britain is a deeply depressing place these days.
I was there in the summer. I went back to visit family and friends, to do some work. People are upset. Racism is on the rise. Xenophobia is on the rise. A lot of the fallout from Brexit, again, sorry to harp on about Brexit, does look like a lot of the fallout from the Trump election. There's a huge division now between urban and rural, between young and old. It's a very polarized place. You know this, because you cover U. They're all corrupt self-dealers, Goldman Sachs, Clinton Foundation, yada yada.
That's one theory, and the other theory is that this was, in the American context, American racism that has been the founding stain of the country from the very first moment. Is that debate a debate on the left, center-left in the U. I think it's almost exactly the same debate going on in the U. Very similar, and I would argue I know you don't want to make it reductionist, but if I had to pick between the two camps, I'm in the racial resentment, cultural anxiety school.
I don't think economic anxiety is what drove Trump or Trump's base, and I don't think that's what drove Brexit. Again, in a similar way, there was a lot of op-eds, and politicians coming out and talking about left behind, and white working-class voters in the north of England who had delivered Brexit, but actually, if you look at a lot of the rigorous academic research, social class was not a predictor of Brexit votes. In fact, a huge chunk of middle-class people and rich people voted for Brexit, just as they did for Donald Trump.
MEHDI HASAN: Also, what I always say to people, especially on the left, who say, "This is all about the working class," if it's all about economic insecurity and the working class, explain to me why the non-white members of the working class didn't vote for Trump. Explain to me why the non-white members of the working class in the U. That doesn't make any sense if income and class is what matters. He found that the number one predictor of support for Brexit Guess what it is, Chris?
Guess what the number one predictor of support for Brexit was, of all the different factors out there. Lord Ashcroft, who is a Conservative politician, one of the big supporters of Brexit, he did a big poll which found a massive correlation between people who don't like environmentalism, multiculturalism, feminism, and support for Brexit.
Now, ostensibly, none of those things have anything to do with Brexit, but again, proxies for people who don't like the way that their country has changed, they don't like the way that It's classic reaction in both cases. I agree with you. I do think there's an atmospheric way in which globalism and neoliberalism have shaped the political economy and structure of companies that produce the conditions to make demagoguery on these scores worse, generally, as a specific sort of causal….
But, fundamentally, the idea that…. As a causal question of what was driving this, like let's be clear about what was driving it. And many, many, many people from deprived communities voted to stay in the U. As I say, people of color, I always say this to people, "Explain to me why, if it's an issue of class or income, what happened to people of color?
Why did they not pull the lever for Trump? Why did they not go for Brexit? Why did London, the most dynamic, multicultural city, the city with the biggest foreign-born population in the U. I do think a lot of it's to do with that. And that's what worries me most about the fallout from Brexit. It's the same thing with Trump.
You can vote Trump out of office. You might, by some miracle, be able to delay or undo Brexit, or what's called a soft-Brexit, you don't pull out completely, but what do you do about the underlying forces of reaction that drove both these movements? And Boris Johnson, who now sees a place for him. That is such a great weather vane moment, right? He senses, and you're seeing this in the U. Again, it's the same thing as Brexit, which is that, if you look at the approval ratings of Donald Trump, there's a lot of buyer's remorse there, too.
He's underwater. He's not popular in the same way that Brexit is not popular once the dog caught the car. There are some genuine debates to be had about the lack of democracy inside the European Union, the austerity policies of the European Union, the Euro, the single currency, and the disaster that's been. There was definitely some good arguments.
Not many, but some in favor of Brexit, whereas I would argue there was not a single good argument in favor of Donald Trump. Having said that, I still think Americans are in a better boat, because at the end of the day, you can still vote Donald Trump out of office; Brexit is forever. In terms of the good arguments, one of the things when you talk about the long-standing British aversion, or portions of Britain's aversion to the continent across the channel, you guys kept the pound and you stayed out of the common currency, which again, during the financial crisis looks very smart.
The common currency was a fricking disaster and basically the people of Greece were water-boarded by the European Central Bank, and by Angela Merkel's government, and so, in that sense I've-. If I lived in Greece, I would be supporting Grexit. It would be a very logical move. CHRIS HAYES: Because they were the ones that got to join the political union, and stay out, and keep control of their currency, which was the crucial sin that was committed, was the common currency, particularly in the wake of the financial crisis.
And here is the best part of all, once the referendum was lost and Teresa May become prime minister, and suddenly becomes a committed Brexiter Remember, she actually opposed Brexit, but now she's prime minister, she see's where her party is.
She knows she has to make Brexit happen. She suddenly becomes a massive Brexiteer. Although, when she's asked, "What does Brexit look like, prime minister," what does she say? So, she's now pushing Brexit.
She could have done a softer version. Put aside the politics her own party are taking. I'm talking, in theory, the idea, even after the Brexit vote, Chris, there was a chance to minimize the harm by saying, "Okay, we're going to pull out of the European Union, but like Norway, we're still going to stay in the single market. We're still going to trade, still going to have no tariffs.
And that comes back to the immigration argument. For these guys on the right, that is the be all and end all, you cannot have free movement. And you've got to sort of similar coalitional problem in the U. Which is that you sort of unite in favor of remain or have in a sort of European and cosmopolitan tolerant future for U. You've got to build this coalition, but those folks have all sorts of beefs with each other.
And it's like in the same way that Bernie Sanders said stuff like, "I don't like Donald trump, but he's got a point about trade. Had he not been leader of the Labor party, he would have been on the Brexit side. It was only because he was leader of a party which was fully committed to the EU that he campaigned in favor of staying in the EU, and he didn't campaign very wholeheartedly or passionately. That's what he's been criticized for a lot by people in his own party who are upset about Brexit.
We're going to go into the next election with a manifesto commitment to undo the referendum or to have a second referendum and stay in the EU. Because at the end of the day in Britain, parliamentary sovereignty trumps everything.